QI. Image shows from L to R: Alan Davies, Sandi Toksvig. Copyright: TalkbackThames.

QI

BBC Two and BBC One panel show about quite interesting facts. 249 episodes (pilot + 17 series), 2003 - 2020. Stars Sandi Toksvig, Stephen Fry and Alan Davies.

Next new episode is on Friday at 10pm. Series Q, Episode 7
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QI. Image shows from L to R: Alan Davies, Victoria Coren Mitchell, Sandi Toksvig, Stephen K Amos, Claudia Winkleman. Copyright: TalkbackThames.

Series Q, Episode 4 - Queasy Quacks

Further details

Topics

- Each member of the panel is given some quack medicines and have to persuade Sandi to buy them.

- Stephen: "Princess Lotus Blossom's Vital Sparks", which was sold at the World Fair in 1904. Princess Lotus Blossom claimed she was trying to give men, euphemistically speaking, a "vital spark". However, the princess was really a woman from the Midwest named Violet McNeal, who claimed to be Chinese and wore yellowface, something she could easily do because the Americans had banned all Chinese people from the country in 1882 under the Chinese Exclusion Act, and no-one in the country knew what a Chinese person looked like. The pills McNeal gave away were really boiled sweets, but she claimed they came from a pouch in the turtle brain called the "Quali Quah". She said: "A man who takes these pills will shout out, 'Pong-Woo-Kee!'", which she claimed was Chinese for: "Eureka!"

- Tangent: Stephen compares his vital sparks to a superhero supplement. The superhero Blank Panther gets his powers by consuming a special herb, to which Stephen says they might as well have gone the whole hog and called him "Ganjaman".

- Tangent: Chinese people were not allowed into the USA again until 1943, and even then they only allowed 105 into the country.

- Alan: "Dr. Brinkley's Formula 1020", which was claimed to be a distillation of goat glands, but was really just coloured water. Dr. Brinkley claimed it would cure anything from emphysema to flatulence. Brinkley later transplanted goats' testicles into men's scrotums. The patient would select their goat, the goat would be castrated, and the testicles would then be inserted into the patent's scrotum. Lots of people underwent this procedure, without checking if Brinkley was medically qualified to do this.

- Tangent: Stephen asks if the patients undergoing goat testicle insertion were impotent and concerned that they could not have kids.

- Tangent: Alan says that when sheep and goats are castrated the testicles just drop off and shrivel up in the sac, but Victoria said this is not true, because she has held a pair of ram's testicles. She was making a TV series about the dictionary, and the show was investigating the origins of the word, "codswallop", because no-one is sure where it comes from. One theory is that it comes from "cods", which is slang for "testicles". "Cods" is where the word "codpiece" comes from. She had to explain this to camera while holding onto a pair of ram's testicles. To get the testicles they went to a butcher, and the testicles were enormous.

- Claudia: "Theodore Roosevelt's Baldness Salve", sold by the Scholder Institute, they claimed it had been used by Roosevelt and Harry Houdini, but both had just recently died before the product came out. The patient sent samples of their hair through the post for an "individual diagnosis" by Prof. Scholder, who got his diagnosis from a Dominican friar. However, a man named Arthur J. Cramp, from the American Medical Association, sent in hairs from a fox fur coat, a Japanese wolf dog, a woman with extremely long, lustrous hair, and a piece of wrapping twine, and each time he got the same response which was that the hair was severely undernourished and that he needed the cure. The salve was actually just Vaseline.

- Tangent: People have been asking Stephen if he is experiencing hair loss because of the garment he is wearing on his head, which is a "do-rag", which he claims is not a hat. He claims that people in airports get confused and security ask him, "can you take off your... bonnet?" Victoria however claims that the do-rag is a hat, arguing that if you put it on your head it's a hat.

- Victoria: "Do-Nothing Mitchell's Rest Cure", also known as, "Dr. Diet and Dr. Quiet", which was created by Dr. Silas Mitchell, who was actually a good doctor but this was not one of his best ideas. Mitchell was the father of neurology and coined the term, "phantom limb syndrome", but he also believed that it was a good idea for people, especially women, to lie down and do absolutely nothing for six weeks. The only things they could do was to be spoon-fed and perhaps get up to go to the lavatory. They had to drink pint after pint of milk, and they were banned from reading and writing. People who did the cure included Virginia Woolf after she had a nervous breakdown, and wrote of her experiences in Mrs. Dalloway. Charlotte Gilman's book The Yellow Wallpaper is about a woman going mad because of this rest cure.

- You might invest in a vibratory chair to help waste pass through the intestines. The Battle Creek Vibratory Chair, currently displayed in the Museum of Questional Medical Devices, located in the Science Museum in Minnesota, dates to 1900. It violently shook the patient in order to remove the waste, and it was claimed it could cure headaches. One was installed in John Harvey Kellogg's sanatorium in Battle Creek. Kellogg was the inventor of cornflakes, thought all sex was bad and reportedly never consummated his marriage.

- Tangent: The Museum of Questionable Medical Devices also includes a 1970s foot-operated breast-enlarging pump.

- Sandi uses a duck call and asks the panel to figure out what she is saying. Most ducks however do not quack. The ones that do are predominately female mallards. They give bouts of loud monotonous quacks, particularly during their pre-laying period, possibly to draw the attention of any predatory mammals who might be in the area. If the predators come, this will prevent male mallards from coming over to bother them. Another theory is that it might be a territorial call, to stop other mallards from moving into the area.

- Tangent: You should not feed bread to ducks as it is bad for them.

- Tangent: Duck sex is particularly violent and non-consensual.

- Tangent: Each panellist is given their own duck call to use. Duck calling is a sport, where the object is to call the ducks over so that they can be shot. The best duck callers take part in a world championship in Arkansas on Thanksgiving. Victorian children made bird callers by cutting the larynx from a recently dead goose and blowing through it. In 1850, a 12-year-old accidentally swallowed a goose larynx he was blowing through, and thus honked like a goose every time he breathed. A German doctor eventually performed a tracheotomy on him to remove the goose larynx, resulting in a medical paper entitled On The Removal of a Larynx of a Goose from that of a Child.

- The panel are asked if they would like to meet Vomiting Larry. The panel do meet him, because Vomiting Larry is a humanoid simulated vomiting system developed by the UK's Health and Safety Laboratory in Derbyshire, and the system has been brought in by Dr. Catherine Makison Booth. The reason he was invented was to look into the dangers of infection transmission, by identifying how far vomit spreads. By doing so, it is easier to see how the vomit can be cleared up and prevent transmission of diseases. The infected area is larger than most people think because of all the little droplets and the effects of splashing. Plus, while you can see the main bulk of the vomit, much of it is also invisible to the naked eye, resulting in people accidentally stepping into it and spreading it around. Vomiting Larry is so called because the head of the system is called "Airway Larry", and it is used by medical students who are practicing laryngoscopies. The panel are then shown film of Larry vomiting. One of things Vomiting Larry is used for is to study the effects of the highly infectious norovirus.

- When Michelangelo took his socks off, his skin came off with them. He didn't wash and his skin came off when he took of his clothes. According to Michelangelo's biographer: "He wore stockings of dog skin constantly for months together, so that when he took them off the skin of the leg often came away with them."

- Tangent: The panel are shown what is thought to be a portrait of Michelangelo by Raphael, mocking Michelangelo, depicting him as grumpy philosopher Heraclitus.

- Tangent: You can probably tell that a sculpture is by Michelangelo because the first and second toes are splayed, the abdomen is depicted as having an eight-pack rather than a six-pack, and the sculpture will have unruly pubic hair. One suggestion for this is that one of Michelangelo's favourite models must have had all three of these attributes.

- Sandi asks Alan why she might siphon four gallons of gas up his bottom. The answer is to check if for holes in his guts. American military surgeon Nicholas Senn created a system for checking if someone had been shot in the gut. One thing he would do is pump the body with hydrogen and set fire to gas as it escaped from the wound in your stomach, in a system called "Rectal Insufflation of Hydrogen Gas". In the 19th century it was a big problem to check is a wounded patient had their intestinal canal pierced by a bullet, because unnecessary surgery could kill the patient. Senn first tired his idea on several dogs to the point where their intestines ruptured, then tried it on himself and had his assistant pump six litres of gas up Senn's backside. Records showed that: "He found that the escape of air or gas from the rectum was prevented by an assistant pressing the margins of the anus firmly above the rectal tube." Senn then tired it on two patients, but the idea never caught on.

General Ignorance

- The technical name for the first patient in a disease outbreak is the "Index Case" or "Index Patient". People wrongly think that the term is "Patient Zero", but this is based on a mistake. The first time that term was used was on Gaetan Dugas, a French-Canadian flight attendant who contracted HIV in Haiti, and allegedly he spread to lots of men during his lifetime. However, he was referred to as "Patient O", rather than "Patient 0", with the "O" standing for "Outside California". (Forfeit: Patient Zero)

- Out of the gents and the ladies lavatories, the gents' is cleaner. According to a study by the University of Arizona, this is because women take children into the ladies with them and thus the ladies' lavatories have more germs in them. Women however, wash their hands a lot more than men. (Forfeit: The Ladies')

- Tangent: Men are less likely to wash their hands at sporting venues. A study at Turner Field Baseball Stadium in Atlanta showed that men washed their hands just 65% of the time, with the results obtained by the, "researchers discreetly observing." However, Alan claims that this is much lower at the football matches he goes to. Alan says that at the old Wembley Stadium, people would urinate into the sink while you we washing your hands.

- Tangent: There is no point in putting toilet paper on the lavatory seat, because the seat is designed to not keep bacteria on it, and the paper will actually absorb germs. Hovering above the seat is also a bad idea, because the pelvic floor muscles cannot relax and thus the bladder doesn't fully empty.

- After you have been drawn, hanged and quartered, you end up in five parts. As well as cutting up the four quarters of the body, the head was removed too. Sometimes various body parts got spread across the country. For example, William Wallace's quarters ended up in Newcastle, Berwick, Perth and Stirling, while is head remained on a spike on London Bridge. "The Keeper of the Heads" was a job that ran for 300 years, where a man displayed traitors' heads at the London Bridge Gatehouse. He would erect new ones and remove heads that had got too old and decayed. (Forfeit: Four)

Scores

- Stephen K. Amos: 8 points
- Alan Davies: 7 points
- Victoria Coren Mitchell: -5 points
- Claudia Winkleman: -6 points
- The Audience: -10 points

Broadcast details

This episode is currently available on BBC iPlayer

Date
Friday 27th September 2019
Time
10pm
Channel
BBC Two
Length
30 minutes

Cast & crew

Regular cast
Sandi Toksvig Host / Presenter
Alan Davies Regular Panellist
Guest cast
Victoria Coren Mitchell Guest
Claudia Winkleman Guest
Stephen K Amos Guest
Catherine Makison Booth (as Dr Catherine Makison Booth) Self
Writing team
James Harkin Script Editor
Sandi Toksvig Script Editor
Andrew Hunter Murray Question Writer
Anna Ptaszynski Question Writer
Production team
John Lloyd (as John Lloyd CBE) Series Producer
Piers Fletcher Producer
Justin Pollard Associate Producer
Nick King Editor
Jonathan Paul Green Production Designer
Nick Collier Lighting Designer
Howard Goodall Composer
Mat Coward Researcher
Will Bowen Researcher
Ed Brooke-Hitching Researcher
Mike Turner Researcher
Jack Chambers Researcher
Emily Jupitus Researcher
Sarah Clay Commissioning Editor

Video

Behind-the-scenes: Alan Davies wants to watch football

Alan Davies is annoyed he has to record an episode of QI when his football team Arsenal are playing. In this video we see him checking the scores during the breaks in recordings.

Featuring: Sandi Toksvig, Alan Davies, Victoria Coren Mitchell.

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