The comedian will join the show's host, the 'Professor of Ignorance' John Lloyd, for the 11th series of the show when it returns later this year.
The Museum Of Curiosity, which was launched in 2007 sees three panellists each week discussing items that fascinate them. Each series sees Lloyd joined by a different curator, whose job it is to facilitate the discussions.
The BBC points out: "Prior to launching his comedy career, Romesh was as a maths teacher and head of sixth form, making him the perfect companion for the 'Professor'."
John Lloyd comments: "I'm absolutely delighted that Romesh will be joining us this series. He's one of the funniest, smartest, nicest people I know and the perfect addition to the long line of distinguished curators it's been my privilege to work with."
Since making his comedy debut in 2010, Ranganathan has become one of most in-demand comedians on the circuit. His current TV work includes two topical pilots for BBC Two, another series of travel show Asian Provocateur, and the panel show Play To The Whistle. His is also writing his autobiography and will star in the Radio 2 sitcom pilot Parental Guidance in March.